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Ear cropping and tail docking are common today, but are these practices necessary or merely cosmetic? These procedures seem archaic to some, but it’s still considered the norm for certain dog breeds. We explore this topic and give you the information you need to make an informed decision for your pup.
Cropping, also known as clipping dogs’ ears, removes all or part of the external ear flap on a dog. Many countries, including the United Kingdom and Australia, ban this practice (as well as tail docking) because it’s thought to be purely cosmetic; thus, it’s considered animal cruelty to perform unnecessary surgery on an animal.
Why Do People Crop Dogs’ Ears?
You may be wondering, why do people clip dogs’ ears? Most often it’s done for perceived health benefits and cosmetic reasons like making the dog appear stronger or more aggressive. Some claims suggest that it can minimize ear infections and improve hearing. However, no data support the idea that cropping a dog’s ears improves its health or hearing.
Many breed standards, set by the American Kennel Club (AKC) and other pedigree organizations, have cosmetic requirements, including cropped ears for certain breeds. But, unless you are competing in a dog show or other event that requires these appearance standards, this isn’t necessary.
Veterinarians typically perform ear cropping when dogs are between 9 and 12 weeks old when cropping is considered most effective. General anesthesia is also typical, and the procedure removes about two-thirds of the ear (the external ear flap) and many nerve endings.
Ears are stitched and bandaged for several weeks. The vet may need to check and replace these bandages periodically to ensure proper healing.
The surgery has risks, including the use of general anesthesia and post-surgery complications. Additionally, the ears may become infected, experience bleeding, or even need to be amputated (rare but possible with significant difficulties). The dog’s ears will be sensitive and painful for weeks after surgery. The dog may experience phantom pain, and there is no guarantee of the success of the operation.
10 Common Breeds With Cropped Ears
The AKC recognizes 20 breeds with cropped ears. Below are the most familiar breeds.
- American Pitbull Terrier
- Boston Terrier
- Brussels Griffon
- Caucasian Shepherd Dog
- Doberman Pinscher
- Great Dane
- Miniature Pinscher
Tail docking is the removal of part of a dog’s tail. The amount removed can vary depending on the breed standards.
Why Do People Dock Dogs’ Tails?
In the past, tail docking was thought to prevent rabies, strengthen the dog’s back, increase its speed, and prevent injuries from fighting.
Today, people dock a dog’s tail to prevent the spread of infection, help heal from disease, or for cosmetic reasons. They also dock to avoid injuries for working dogs who could get their tails caught in something. However, most tails are docked primarily for cosmetic purposes, causing unnecessary pain to the dog.
Vets typically perform tail docking when a dog is just a few days old. There are two ways to dock a tail. The first way consists of constricting the blood flow to the tail with a rubber ligature until the tail falls off, which can take a few days. The second is severing the tail with scissors or a scalpel.
Make sure you keep your dog’s bedding clean and monitor the surgical site until it heals fully. The space your dog is in should be kept clean, dry, and free of urine and feces.
Your vet will tell you when to remove the bandages, typically two to three days after surgery. Check with your vet to learn the removal process they recommend.
Monitor the area for redness, swelling, and discharge. If you see these signs, there may be an infection. Your dog will probably need a follow-up visit about a week after surgery to have the stitches (if used) removed.
15 Common Breeds With Docked Tails
The AKC recognizes 62 breeds with docked tails. Below are some of the most familiar breeds.
- Australian Shepherd
- Brittany Spaniel
- Cocker Spaniel
- Doberman Pinscher
- English Springer Spaniel
- German Shorthaired Pointer
- Jack Russell Terrier
- Miniature Pinscher
- Pembroke Welsh Corgi
- Wire-Haired Fox Terrier
- Yorkshire Terrier
We got this information from the AVMA (American Veterinarian Medical Association), which was last updated in 2019. However, current legislation could change the rules in some states. Be sure to check the laws in your state and talk to your vet about how they will affect your decisions on dog ear cropping and tail docking.
Ear Cropping Laws
- 9 states regulate ear cropping.
- It’s illegal to crop a dog’s ears in Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, and Pennsylvania unless done by a licensed vet while the dog is under anesthetic.
- Maryland law states that the ear cropping must be “appropriate on the animal.”
- Massachusetts forbids ear cropping except when performed by a licensed vet.
It’s illegal in Washington to perform ear cropping except when it is considered a customary management practice.
- “Animal torture” is illegal in Illinois (includes both ear cropping & tail docking) but has an exception for altering an animal done under the direction of a licensed vet.
- Maine bans mutilating an animal by irreversibly damaging body parts (includes ear cropping & tail docking) but makes an exception if performed by a licensed vet.
Tail Docking Laws
- 21 states regulate tail docking in some form.
- Maryland and Pennsylvania are the only states that have provisions restricting the tail docking of dogs.
- It’s illegal in Pennsylvania to dock a dog’s tail if it is older than five days unless medically necessary.
- In Maryland, only vets can perform tail docking and only if they use anesthesia and it’s considered appropriate.
- Alaska and Louisiana allow tail docking, but only if it is sanitary, minimizes the dog’s pain and distress, and is done quickly.
While the AKC recognizes ear cropping and tail docking as “acceptable practices integral to defining and preserving breed character, enhancing good health, and preventing injuries,” many vets and animal rights advocates don’t agree. The AVMA opposes ear cropping and tail docking when done solely for cosmetic purposes and encourages the elimination of these practices from breed standards.
This two-and-a-half-minute video from Inside Edition gives you some food for thought on whether or not dog ear cropping and tail docking are the right choices.
While some people use ear cropping and tail docking to make their dogs appear stronger and to portray a more aggressive appearance, that really isn’t necessary. If you’re looking for a protective breed to help keep your home and family safe, consider one of the best guard dogs for families as your next pup. These breeds are known for their protective nature and have those instincts whether you crop and dock them or not.Tagged With: Ears