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A particularly versatile and intelligent dog breed, it is no surprise that the Labrador Retriever has been named the American Kennel Club’s most popularly registered dog for the past four years in a row. Beating out other popular breeds such the German Shepherd Dogs, Yorkshire Terriers, Golden Retrievers and even the incredibly intelligent Poodle, the Labrador Retriever certainly stands a notch above the rest. So what is it that makes this Canadian breed so popular? A wide array of physical and mental characteristics make the Labrador retriever such a popular breed, and let’s not forget those big friendly brown and hazel eyes!
Where Did the Lab Retriever Originate?
The Labrador Retriever originated on the island of Newfoundland part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The Labrador, like other dog breeds, originally began as another dog entirely – in this case the St. John’s Water Dog (also known as the Lesser Newfoundland.) The Labrador Retriever is not the only dog to share this ancestor however and looking back through the lineage of all modern retrievers including the Labrador Retriever, the Flat Coated Retriever, the Chesapeake Bay Retriever and the Golden Retriever, the St. John’s Water Dog can be found. It was through interbreeding in the late 16th century that the Labrador Retriever got its start. Despite being interbred with other dogs the Labrador Retriever still maintained many of the features of the St. John’s Water Dog, in fact barring its white tuxedo markings the St. John’s Water Dog resembles a black Labrador Retriever almost identically. The Labrador also managed to continue the retrieval skills of the St. John’s Water Dog including pulling fishermen’s nets in from the water.
What Did the Lab’s Ancestors Do?
As the Labrador Retriever breed came to its own breed it became a popular fishing boat dog among fishermen in the St. John’s area. Not only was the Labrador Retriever prized for its retrieval ability but its loyalty and good work ethic resulting from its eager to please nature kept the Labrador Retriever as a working breed of dog. While the Labrador Retriever thrived as a water dog in the St. John’s area they also found themselves being brought back to England in the 1800’s which served as a central command for the Newfoundland fishing industry. During this time kennels popped up around England and the Labrador became a popular hunting dog among waterfowl hunters.
How the Labrador Retriever Came to Be
It was upon bringing the Labrador Retriever back to England that the breed found its official ancestry with the breeding program implemented by the Duke of Buccleuch. It is ascertained by Labrador aficionados that the modern day Labrador has its roots with the two dogs given to the Duke to assist in his program: Avon and Ned. The Labrador Retriever soon became known in England by its current name rather than the “St. John’s Water Dog” by which it was formerly known. The Labrador Retriever was given its own name to distinguish it from other dogs heralding from the same area of Newfoundland, it was named after the Labrador area.
The Labrador Retriever was particularly favored by fishermen and hunters alike for its smooth and short coat. In contrast to the smooth short coat of the Labrador Retriever, the Newfoundland (also stemming from the St. John’s Water Dog) had a thicker and wavier coat which tended to trap ice and weigh the dog down in the water.
Lab Retriever: Distinguishing Characteristics
Water Repellent Coat
The coat of the Labrador Retriever is a smooth, short flat coat that consists of two layers: the undercoat and the overcoat. The undercoat of the Labrador is specifically designed to protect the Labrador Retrievers skin when in colder water. The slightly oily coat is specifically designed to repel water and also serves to protect the dog from the elements. The Labrador Retrievers coat should not be curly by breed standards and although it is permissible to have a wave down the back of the coat, generally the hair lies flat. The slightly oily nature of the Labrador Retrievers coat leads inexperienced owners with the impression that their dog needs bathing; however, the oily coat is natural and serves to protect the skin of the water going Labrador Retriever. Everything about the Labrador Retriever that is known and accepted as the breed standard today derives from its origin as a water dog, particularly its water repellent coat as well as its other specialized physiological features.
In addition to the unique water repellent coat of the Labrador Retriever, this dog also has webbed toes. Webbed toes are usually found on dogs that were bred out of retrieving stock. Webbed toes assist dogs who work in the water to efficiently paddle through the water quickly. The Labrador Retriever also has a thick otter-like tail which proves particularly efficient as a rudder when swimming in the water. This thick and powerful tail is rather wide at the base of the dog and tapers to a tip at the end, even the Labrador Retriever’s tail is covered with its thick and water resistant coat.
Yellow and Chocolate Colored Labs
Today’s Labrador Retrievers carry much of the physical appearance of the St. John’s Water Dog; however, they have one particular feature which developed as a result of their breeding – their color. The St. John’s Water dog was a black dog with white tuxedo markings, as the Labrador Retriever breed began to get its start it too was black. As breeding programs continued, however, there were occasionally yellow and chocolate puppies but due to the breed ideal at the time being for black puppies these outcasts were often removed from litters and future breeding programs. It wasn’t until the twentieth century that yellow and chocolate Labrador Retrievers became accepted as part of the breed. The yellow Labrador Retriever was the first to be popularized in 1899 and the chocolate Labrador Retriever followed in the 1930’s.
The Yellow Lab
The early yellow Labrador Retriever was much darker in color than the yellow Labrador Retrievers seen today; they resembled more of a Golden Retriever standard color. As breeding continued, however, buyers showed a preference for the lighter color of yellow and soon this became the norm for the breed. There are some “fox red” (a very dark yellow) Labrador Retrievers around these days and they have begun to make a comeback as a popular color choice among lovers of the breed. Unlike the change in coat color with the yellow Labrador Retriever, the chocolate and black Labrador Retrievers have no acceptable variety in their color. It is also thought by some that “silver” Labradors exist; however, this statement has been refuted by most members of the Labrador Retriever lover’s society and it has been suggested that a “silver” Labrador is merely a cross between a Labrador Retriever and a Weimaraner (which possesses a shimmery silver coat.) Lastly there is a genetic pigmentation issue within some yellow Labrador Retriever’s – particularly when yellow and chocolate Labrador Retriever’s are bred – which results in a yellow Labrador Retriever having flesh colored pigmentation around the eyes and on the nose. This is not a desired trait according to AKC regulations, and it is referred to as a “Dudley” Labrador Retriever.
Size and Weight
While the colors of their coats may change the standard for the size and weight of the breed does not. According to the American Kennel Club’s regulations, the Labrador Retriever should measure in at the withers at 22 ½ to 24 ½ inches if it is a male and 21 ½ to 23 ½ inches as a female. The weight class for male dogs is 65 to 80lbs and for females is 55 to 70lbs. The Labrador Retriever is a rather large breed and is also commonly known for having a knot (also called a “knowledge bump”) on the top of its head.
How Smart Is My Lab?
Though the Labrador Retriever is a particularly smart breed of dog the idea that this knot is related to the amount of knowledge that a dog picks up is simply a myth. This large bump on the dogs head is actually the occipital bone which can be more prominent in both breeds and individual dogs. In addition to this prominent knot on the head the Labrador Retriever is well known for having a “bull neck” – a neck that is wide and muscular. The large thick neck of the Labrador Retriever was a useful trait when the dogs were mostly used for hauling fishing nets back to fishermen’s boats. These days the Labrador Retriever is still expected to have a thick and muscular neck; however, for most dogs it serves little purpose as they no longer work such laborious duties.
The Two Lineages of Lab Retriever
In current society it is often believed that there are two different breeds, however, this is not the case. The Labrador Retriever does have two different lines, a conformation line (“English“, “Blocky Headed,” “show” or “bench” Labs) and a field line (“American” or “working” Labs). The two varieties of Labrador Retriever are both still of the Labrador Retriever breed, but they each came to be specialized for their intended “jobs”. The shorter and stockier conformation line of Labrador Retrievers have blockier heads and are generally used as show dogs (it should be noted that this is not always the case and field lines can also be shown per the AKC breed standard.) The taller and lighter field line of Labrador Retriever is more slender than its counterpart and is generally used for field work (again, it should be noted that this is not always the case and conformation lines can also be used as working dogs.)
Labs are “Pleasers”
There is some argument among fans of the Labrador Retriever breed that certain lines of Labrador Retriever’s or even certain colors have better temperaments than others. This is simply not true. A dog’s temperament depends very much on its genetic makeup, its individual upbringing and its medical soundness. Overall Labrador Retrievers are known for being well-balanced and friendly dogs. They possess the skill and versatility to be working dogs as well as service dogs and just good companions. Unlike some other breeds the Labrador Retriever is not well known for being territorial, aggressive or nervous and they are “pleasers” by nature which makes them particularly adaptable as dogs who serve their communities.
The Lab As a Working Dog
Labrador Retrievers are generally food and praise driven dogs and combining this fact with their incredible intelligence (ranked at number seven among all dog breeds) and they make the perfect candidates as working dogs. Working dogs can perform a variety of different duties that help the community; they can also perform in various activities simply for the thrill of the game! As far as jobs in which Labrador Retrievers are often found they include: Police K9 Unit work, Bomb Sniffing Dogs, Search And Rescue, Tracking, Therapy Dogs, Seeing Eye Dogs and more recently Cancer Sniffing Dogs. Labrador Retrievers also thrive in being challenged with activities to keep their minds busy, such activities include: Dock Diving, Hunting And Retrieval, Agility, Flyball, and even Dancing! Regardless of what job a Labrador Retriever takes part in this working breed is always up for a good challenge and a challenged dog is a tired dog and a tired dog is a happy dog.
Is a Lab Retriever the Right Dog For You?
The Labrador Retriever is not the right breed for everyone, in fact if you’re looking for a dog to lounge around all day with you this is most definitely not the breed for you! But if you are looking for a dog who will provide you with companionship on your daily walks, a good laugh or two when that huge otter like tail sweeps everything off the coffee table and a wow of amazement as it retrieves that ball for the fiftieth time, then the Labrador Retriever could be the right dog for you. This is an eager to please and loyal dog and as long as you are willing to give the Labrador Retriever the stimulation and exercise it needs to stay healthy and keep from being bored then you will have the ideal companion. What happens if you can’t keep a Labrador Retriever exercised and mentally stimulated? Well, you may just find that they’ll create their own game using your couch cushions and… well, anything else they can find.