The Jack Russell Terrier is a small dog with a particularly big attitude. When people talk of a small dog with a big dog attitude most of the time they are referring to this spunky terrier whose roots are in fox hunting. While it may be a small dog the Jack Russell is a very adept hunting dog and uses its small size to its advantage. Despite this fact, however, it has earned a place in hearts of dog lovers everywhere.
Origins of the Terrier
It is thought that the Jack Russell Terrier found its beginnings from the English White Terrier when a parson, Reverend John Russell purchased a small terrier talented at fox hunting, from his local milk man. The female “fox terrier,” so named because of its ability to fox hunt and not for any relation to an actual Fox Terrier, became the beginnings of Reverend John Russell’s breeding program in which he strived to breed courageous fox hunters with good stamina. As a hunter himself, it was important to Russell that he had a fox hunting dog that was able to keep up with the hunt as well as drive out the foxes from their holes. Already by the 1850’s these dogs were recognized as a specific breed and this is where the Jack Russell Terrier began.
The Terrier of Russell’s time, however, was larger than the Jack Russell of today. Through demands of the breed over time they began to change. It was around 1894 when Blake Heinemann created a breed standard for terriers that were to be used for digging out badgers, he required shorter legged dogs and it is thought that perhaps this is where the Jack Russell began to shrink down in size from Reverend Russell’s larger fox terrier. As time progressed changes in the dog began to become more apparent but it was post World War II that brought a drastic change for the small terrier.
From Hunting to Household
After World War II there was less demand for hunting dogs and so the Jack Russell began to serve more as a home dog and less as a hunting dog. During this time they were also cross bred with a variety of other smaller dogs creating a wide range of off shoots from the Jack Russell Terrier including “Shortie Jacks”. As society moved further away from post war life it became a popular dog among households worldwide and prompted the formation of a variety of breed recognition clubs.
History of the Jack Russell Terrier
While there have been some changes in the Jack Russell over its history (namely in its height and leg length) the actual breed has changed very little for the past two hundred years or so. The standard for the breed today has the dog measuring in between 10 – 15 inches tall at the withers and weighing in at anywhere from 14 – 18 lbs. Due to their small size it is increasingly common to find overweight Jack Russell’s from their being fed table scraps or too much food in one meal. The Jack Russell Terrier can have a smooth or a broken coat and these coats are always thick double coats which serve to protect the dog that works as a hunter. It is generally white with brown and black spots and it should also have small ears that are triangular in shape.
A Spunky Personality
The Jack Russell Terrier is still built as a dog that is intended for hunting and the tradition of docking the tail so it may serve as a handle to hold while pulling a ratting dog from a hole is still intact today (although rarely done for practicality it is mostly done for the look of it.) It’s tail is long when not docked and often carries patched markings similar to those on the dog’s coat. One of the most favored characteristics of the spunky Jack Russell Terrier is that of its almond shaped eyes which shine with life and excitement in a truly happy Terrier. Overall though it should be noted that the number one reason that people choose this dog is for their attitude.
The Jack Russell Terrier is a dog who has never known a hard day of work in its life. It lives to work, and perhaps play as well, because being bred to hunt they are runners that enjoy a good run and in particular a good chase! An unfortunate instinct, however, is their barking and general noise level. A working Jack Russell would have to gain the attention of its master as well as frighten foxes and badgers from their holes and they did so by barking. Unfortunately for most, for owners today this is a characteristic that stuck with the breed and they are known for being noisy dogs that aren’t afraid to bark to get the attention of their owner or other companion animals.
No Shortage of Energy Here!
In addition to barking the Jack Russell Terrier is a particularly high energy dog that was bred to have good stamina when it came to the hunt. The Jack Russell Terrier can be deceiving being such a small dog; however, the amount of energy that these small dogs possess can rival even a young big dog on days. The potential owner should always be aware of this stamina and need for exercise because the Jack Russell will always find a way to entertain itself if it is not provided with adequate exercise and stimulation.
Like most intelligent dog breeds that were intended as working dogs, Jack Russell Terrier must be stimulated every single day and offered an appropriate level of exercise to allow the dog an outlet of its energy. Without sufficient exercise the breed is prone to destruction of its master’s property and terrorization of other household pets…this may or may not include children who will generally receive nips at their heels.
The high energy level of the Jack Russell Terrier does not have to be a negative characteristic though; it can prove particularly helpful in a household with athletic individuals who are looking for a dog that can keep up with them. The Terrier’s energy level is also particularly useful when the dog is trained in agility or flyball, two activities that this breed in particular excels at. In short the Jack Russell Terrier is a dog that needs exercise and plenty of it and it should be noted that the average lifespan of this small Terrier is approximately fifteen years so bringing a Jack Russell Terrier in to your home is certainly not a decision that should be taken lightly!
There are a few other factors to consider when bringing a Jack Russell Terrier in to your home aside from energy level. One of the most important things to know about this breed is that while they are family-oriented dogs and can do well with children they do not tolerate being pulled on and taunted the way more family friendly breeds like Labrador Retrievers do. The Jack Russell Terrier is not afraid to nip or bite back when it feels that it is being threatened. In general, however, the Jack Russell is a particularly happy breed of dog and they can thrive in a household with children when the children are taught to respect the dog and not tease or hurt the dog in any way. This should, however, be a lesson taught to any children who are seeking to become dog owners!
It is also important for any potential owner to know that this breed has a tendency to fall in to what is referred to as “Small Dog Syndrome.” “Small Dog Syndrome” occurs when a small dog believes that he is the leader of his pack and he directs the actions and attentions of everyone in his pack – including his humans! In order to avoid falling in to this trap with your future Jack Russell Terrier it is important that you maintain a firm and confident hand throughout your dogs training and obedience classes and establish your position as alpha dog of the family.
Jack Russell Terrier Personality: This is One Smart Pup!
One impressive aspect of the Jack Russell breed is their intelligence and this is one trait for which they are renowned. They are often used in Hollywood films and commercials due to their high trainability and in general the breed also thrives on the intellectual stimulation it receives from being trained. It is possible to have a very well trained and well behaved Jack Russell if you are dedicated to providing a stable and structured pack for your dog to live in. Acting as your dogs master will garner you respect as well as a well behaved dog.
Potential Health Concerns
While the Jack Russell Terrier is generally a sturdy working breed of dog they do have a small variety of health problems which are common to the breed. Included in these health problems are kneecap dislocation, deafness (a popular trait among many dogs that are primarily white coated,) Legg Perthes (a disease that affects the dogs hip joints,) and inherited eye diseases. While most of these traits can be lived with a Terrier that is suffering from any ailment is not free to act like they should. This is an instinctively highly energetic dog with a high prey drive and a need to run so any kneecap dislocation that puts the dog on crate rest and limited exercise for a period of time is going to cause additional problems for the dog such as depression.
One way to avoid the majority of these health concerns is to ensure that the dog you select is from good stock. Ensuring that your dog is from good stock involves research in to your potential breeder, asking to see the health certifications of the puppies parents as well as grandparents is a great place to start. It is also important to ask about any problems that may have occurred with past puppy litters. By asking all of the right questions you can help to ensure that your new Jack Russell Terrier puppy is healthy and sure to live a long life without interference from health problems that could have been avoided.
There are many families that are well suited to the Terrier breed; in general these families are high energy families that always try to make their dog a part of their outdoor fun. Part of ensuring that this is the right breed for you involves researching the breed characteristics as well as actually meeting with your dog and assessing whether your family is a good match for the breed and vice versa. The importance of having a good match between a high energy breed such as the Jack Russell Terrier, and the family it will be living in cannot be over stated.
An unhappy dog leads to an unhappy family which almost always leads to another innocent dog sitting in the shelter waiting for a new home. By doing your research and learning about all the pro’s and con’s of this particular breed you can determine if you and your family are ready to take on this little Napoleon of the dog world and offer it the type of lifestyle that it deserves while still maintaining your families sense of normalcy. Bringing any dog breed in to your home is about meshing the characteristics of your new dog with the characteristics of your family and when done right everyone is happy.