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The golden retriever is known for being one of the most popular family dog breeds, but just what is it that makes this breed so high in demand? Below we will take a look at what distinguishes the golden retriever from other popular dog breeds including their intelligence level and trainability. Read on to find out more about this lovable dog including the history, facts and what it takes to have one in your household.
The History of the Golden Retriever Breed
The origin of the golden retriever begins in the 1800’s when it was developed by Lord Tweedmouth. In the Scottish Highlands, Lord Tweedmouth crossed a yellow flat coated retriever with the Tweed water spaniel. The Tweed water spaniel is now extinct but it played a significant role in contributing to the golden retriever breed. The dog that resulted from the retriever spaniel cross breeding was then crossed with the bloodhound and Irish setter and later with the Tweed water spaniel once more. The resulting dog was the golden retriever however, at the time of its development it was referred to as the golden flat coat. This well-loved breed was recognized by the American Kennel Club for the first time in 1925.
The golden retriever is currently recognized by the following organizations: CKC, FCI, AKC, UKC, KCGB, CKC, ANKC, NKC, NZKC, APRI, ACR, DRA and NAPR.
British Versus American Golden Retrievers
There are two varieties of golden retriever that are generally recognized, this is the same as with Labrador retrievers. These two variations are distinguished by physical appearance alone.
The British Type Golden Retriever
The British type golden retriever is most commonly found in Australia and Europe. As with Labrador retrievers, the muzzle of the British type golden retriever is shorter and wider and it has a blockier build. The legs and tail of the British type are shorter and the chest is deeper than the American type golden retriever. British type goldens are generally heavier dogs and have rounder eyes as opposed to triangular-shaped eyes.
The American Type Golden Retriever
The American type golden retriever is not as blocky in build as the British type golden retriever and often appears lankier. The skull is more slender rather than the wide skull of the British type and the legs and tail are longer.
Some individuals also distinguish between the American and Canadian golden retrievers; however, most combine Canadians with the Americans as one group. The Canadian golden retrievers, when they are distinguished, are done so by the different density of their coat and their darker color. Canadian goldens are also considered to be thinner than the Americans.
The Basic Appearance of the Golden Retriever
The golden retriever stands between 20 and 24 inches tall. Females are generally smaller than males standing between 20 and 22 inches where males stand between 22 and 24 inches tall. Female golden retrievers are also commonly lighter than males weighing between 55 and 70 pounds whereas males weigh between 60 and 80 pounds.
The golden retriever is a medium-sized breed with a black to brown-black colored nose and a scissor bite. The eyes of this breed are a deep brown and relatively large in size to the skull. The ears of this breed hang low and close to the face. Another recognizable feature to this breed is the thick and feathered tail. Feathering can also be seen on the back of the legs, the underneath of the belly and the front of the neck.
The Coat of the Golden Retriever
The golden retriever is always golden in color but the shades of gold vary from light cream to deep gold. As the dog ages it is not unusual for it to lighten in color becoming almost white around the eyes and muzzle as well as the feet and underbelly. The double coat of this breed is water-resistant and thick. The under coat is designed to repel water from the skin and help hold in body heat even when it is quite cold. The golden retriver’s coat tends to shed year round but most particularly in the spring. A healthy coat can be maintained with regular grooming. The coat should be both combed and brushed with a brush that has firm bristles. It is important as with other retrievers, to minimize bathing to avoid stripping the coat of oils necessary to maintain skin health. Dry shampoo can be used on the dogs coat as needed. Due to the average level of shedding this is not a dog that should be considered by anyone with allergies in their household.
The Health of the Golden Retriever
Unfortunately for the golden retriever breed, it is prone to a number of health conditions. A considerable number of these health conditions result from over-breeding by irresponsible breeders. Some of the most common health conditions that are seen in golden retrievers include: cancer (particularly mast cell tumors), hip dysplasia, heart conditions, skin allergies, Von Willebrand’s disease, congenital eye defects and obesity. Many of these conditions lead to a shortened lifespan so it is important to understand the impact of not researching a dog’s genetic lines. The average life expectancy of this breed is between 10 to 12 years.
The Temperament of the Golden Retriever
The golden retriever is an intelligent breed; in fact it ranks high on the list of top ten most intelligent breeds according to obedience trial judges. If it is provided with training and enough exercise, this is a devoted and gentle dog that is patient with family members, children and other animals. This breed is self-assured when raised by a healthy household and when provided with consistent leadership, socialization and obedience training.
As with most retrievers, the golden retriever is a dog that takes pleasure in pleasing its owner which can make obedience training a fun experience for both the dog and owner. The golden retriever is a sociable breed and will never become a healthy dog if not allowed constant contact and companionship from its pack members – this is not an “outside dog” breed. This is not a breed that excels in guarding or other protective work like schutzhund. Despite not being good at guarding, this is a breed that will sound the alarm if strangers approach the family or the family home.
Without proper training this is a breed that can quickly and easily become destructive or “neurotic.” It is necessary to consider the amount of both physical and psychological stimulus that this breed requires to be healthy and happy prior to deciding whether this breed is right for you.
The Golden Retriever as a Sporting Breed
The golden retriever is recognized by the American Kennel Club as a sporting breed. Most popularly this retriever is used as a gun dog but it also excels in other activities including: tracking, hunting, narcotics detection, competitive obedience, agility work and any activity that involves swimming. Another important and frequent use for the golden retriever is as a service dog in all aspects of the service industry including guide dogs for the blind and therapy dog work.
The golden retriever is a dog with such a strong work ethic that it will work until it literally collapses. It is important for the dog’s human handler to monitor their dog’s activity and any signs of fatigue as this breed is not one to stop in the middle of a job even if it is tired. Overheating may also become a concern for the golden retriever that over exerts itself on the job so it is important to look for signs of dehydration and overheating as well as fatigue.
Exercise Requirements for the Golden Retriever
Due to the nature of the golden retriever as a sporting breed it is important that their daily exercise requirements are met. This is not a dog that is going to be satisfied with just a short walk daily. This dog needs at a minimum a long walk or a run daily to expend pent-up energy. As retrievers, this is also a breed that will thrive on retrieval games such as fetch. It is important to make sure that during exercise this dog is made to heel (with the exception of fetch) so that the dog understands that it is not the leader of the pack. Like any dog, it is important that the golden retriever never doubt the human pack leader’s position of leadership.
The golden retriever can live happily in an apartment but only when it receives an adequate amount of exercise outside of the home.
The biggest consideration when deciding to add a golden retriever to your family is the amount of exercise this breed needs to stay healthy. Adequate exercise is not only important to maintain physical health, but it is also crucial to maintain a healthy psychological state. If you are rarely home then the golden retriever is not a breed that you should consider without being able to provide doggy daycare type activities where the dog can socialize and exercise. If you are an inactive family unwilling to take long daily walks and unable to afford someone to conduct this service for you, then a golden retriever is not for you. This dog is not a couch potato.
The Intelligence of the Golden Retriever
In a list of the top ten dog breeds ranked by trainability, the golden retriever ranks fourth according to neuropsychologist Stanley Coren. These dogs were ranked in accordance with their ability to obey commands that have been repeated less than five times with a 95% success rate. There are numerous factors that come together to make a dog an intelligent breed and for the golden retriever one of these factors is its desire to please its owner.
Training a golden retriever is often fairly easy because of their intelligence level; however, it is crucial to begin training at an early age. The sooner training begins for any dog; the more solid of a foundation is built for the dog for future more advanced training.
Video: Golden Retriever 101
This five-minute video from Animal Planet gets into the basics of golden retrievers and what you can expect from this lovable family pet.
Is a Golden Retriever the Right Breed For You?
Deciding which dog breed is right for you is a decision that should not be taken lightly. There are many things that should be taken in to consideration when deciding if this is the right breed for your lifestyle and your family.
If you are looking for a dog that is allergy or asthma friendly then the golden retriever is not your best choice. While no dogs are truly hypoallergenic, there are some breeds that are less likely to cause allergic reactions in family members – the golden retriever is not this type of dog. And if you are a loner who doesn’t like people to depend on you then you are not going to mesh well with the golden retriever. This is not a loner’s dog; it requires companionship and attention from its family and will not thrive in a family where it is neglected.
However if you don’t have allergies and love company and taking care of others then this might be the perfect addition to your family!
Why do you love golden retrievers?